In This Issue:

Quiz Time 2 - 4, by Chuck Staples, from the Mid Iowa Cactus & Succulent Society Newsl etter

St. Nicholas Visits the Greenhouse, by Eva Allen, from the Kansas City Prickly Press

Global Growing - Meet Vesna, edited by Linda Tamblyn


QUIZ TIME #2 Chuck Staples, 1999 Mid-Iowa C&SS

1. The correct spelling of this genus is:
a. Sanseveria c. Sansevieria b. Sanseiveria d. Sanseverea

2. Which species have truncate leaves?
a. Haworthia truncata & H. viscosa b. Haworthia truncata & H. maughanii c. Haworthia truncata & H. greenii d. Haworthia bolusii & H. aranea

3. A longstanding explorer of Lithops is:
a. Desmond T Cole c. John Pilbeam b. Gordon D Rowley d. W Hubert Earle

4. This genus is a cactus:
a. Alluaudia c. Gibbaeum b. Fockea d. Arrojadoa

5. The Yearbook name of the Cactus & Succulent society of America (CSSA) is:
a. Bradleya c. Haseltonia b. To The Point d. The Succulent Periodical

6. The Cactus & Succulent Journal is published:
a. every 2 months c. 6 times a year b. bi-monthly d. all of the above

7. Abbey Garden is:
a. a cactus & succulent garden in Tuscon, AZ b. a cactus garden in Laredo, TX c. a mail order business of c&s species d. a succulent garden in Berkley, CA

8. This business has a large selection of cactus & succulent books:
a. Rainbow Gardens c. Grigsby Cactus Gardens b. Abbey Garden d. Arid Lands Greenhouses

9. The colorful Gymnocalycium grafted plants (orange, red) originated from:
a. USA c. Japan b. Mexico d. Cuba

10. Who provided the articles & photos for "Cacti & Succulents For The Amateur" in the C&S Journal in early 1999?
a. Gerald Barad c. Woody Minnich b. Myron Kimnach d. Duke Benadom

11. Who is the editor of the C&S Journal in 1999?
a. Charlie Glass c. Woody Minnich b. Myron Kimnach d. Duke Benadom

12. Who is president of CSSA in 1999?
a. Gerald Barad c. Larry Mitich b. Seymour Linden d. Mary Jo Gussett

13. Where was the CSSA 27th Biennial Convention held in 1997?
a. Tucson c. Phoenix b. San Diego d. Albuquerque

14. This is a caudiciform succulent:
a. Cotyledon orbiculata c. Fockea edulis b. Ceropegia stapeliformis d. Anacampseros papyracea

15. The "Claret-cup Hedgehog Cactus" generally refers to this plant:
a. Echinocereus triglochidiatus c. Echinocereus pectinatus b. Echinocereus viridiflorus d. Echinocereus engelmannii

16. This plant has fishhook-type spines:
a. Neobesseya missouriensis c. Coryphantha vivipara b. Escobaria tuberculosa d. Mammillaria microcarpa

17. Which is generally winter-hardy in Iowa?
a. Pediocactus simpsonii c. Neobesseya missouriensis b. Opuntia rutila d. All of the above

18. Which Opuntia species is native to Iowa?
a. O. basilaris c. O. chlorotica b. O. fragilis d. All of the above

19. Which Opuntia is considered a Cholla?
a. O. polyacantha c. O. imbricata b. O. phaeacantha d. All of the above

20. Which is considered a miniature plant?
a. Mammillaria gummifera c. Sclerocactus whipplei b. Neolloydia intertexta d. Pediocactus papyracanthus

Answers to & QUIZ TIME #2

1. c. Sansevieria.
2. b. Haworthia truncata & H. maughanii. 'Truncata' means ending abruptly, as if with the end cut off.
3. a. Desmond T Cole.
4. d. Arrojadoa
5. c. Haseltonia. Bradleya is the Yearbook of the British C&SS.
6. d. All of the above.
7. c. A mail order business of c&s species.
8. a. Rainbow Gardens.
9. c. Japan.
10. d Duke Benadom.
11. b. Myron Kimnach (beginning in 1993). Charlie Glass (1934-1998) was the C&S Journal editor from 1966 thru 1992. Scott Haselton (1895-1991) started this American Journal & was editor from 1929 thru 1965.
12. c. Larry Mitich (beginning in 1996). Linden, Barad & Gussett were previous presidents: Seymour Linden, 1986-89; Jerry Barad, 1990-93; Mary Jo Gussett, 1994-95.
13. b. San Diego (1963, 75, 85 & 97). Tucson held CSSA conventions in 1965 (with Phoenix), 77 & 95); Phoenix in 1949, 65 (with Tucson) & 87; Albuquerque in 1967 & 1981.
14. c. Fockea edulis.
15. a. Echinocereus triglochidiatus.
16. d. Mammillaria microcarpa.
17. d. All of the above.
18. b. O. fragilis.
19. c. O. imbricata
20. d. Pediocactus papyracanthus.

        20      First Rate
        18-19   Top-notch
        16-17   Worth-while
        14-15   Run-of-the-mill
        13 or less  Need-more-study

QUIZ TIME #3 Chuck Staples, 1999 Mid-Iowa C&SS

1. The correct spelling of this genus is: a. Pleiospilos c. Pliospilos b. Pleospilos d. Pleospelos

2. You can successfully graft Pediocactus to a Euphorbia stock:
True False

3. The genus of species "leninghausii" is:
a. Lophophora c. Notocactus b. Titanopsis d. Hatiora

4. The common species of genus Chamaecereus is:
a. elegans c. horrida b. glaucescens d. silvestri

5. Which cactus plant is illegal to have in your collection in the USA?
a. pachycereus marginatus c. Lophophora williamsii b. Harrisia jusbertii d. Lophocereus schottii fa monstrosus

6. Anacampseros papyracea has the appearance of:
a. fuzzy worms c. lady bugs b. white butterflies d. dead stick

7. "Drunkards Dream" is a common name for:
a. Hatiora salicornioides c. Aporocactus flagelliformis b. Lophophora williamsii d. Euphorbia squarrosa

8. "Bishops Cap" is a common name for:
a. Astrophytum capricorne c. Astrophytum myriostigma b. Astrophytum asterias d. Astrophytum ornatum

9. The first editor of the C&S Journal was:
a. Charlie Glass c. Harry Johnson, Sr b. W Taylor Marshall d. Scott Haselton

10. The author(s) of the 4 volume books "The Cactaceae" is(are):
a. George Lindsay & Hubert Earle c. W Taylor Marshall b. N L Britton & J N Rose d. George Engelmann

11. Peyote is a hallucinogenic drug cactus:
True False

12. The botanic name for "Peyote" is this cactus:
a. Pachycereus marginatus c. Lophophora williamsii b. Harrisia jusbertii d. Lophocereus schottii fa monstrosus

13. The classification of cacti 7 other succulents are in this order:
a. species, genus, variety c. genus, species, variety b. genus, variety, species d. species, variety, genus

14. 'Basal' branching of a columnar cacti means:
a. Branching at 10 foot above ground level b. Branching at 5 ft above ground level c. Branching at ground level d. Branchin at any level

15. Peireskiopsis belongs in the sub-family Peireskioideae:
True False

16. Peireskioideae, Opuntioideae & Cactoideae are the 3 sub-families of the Family Cactaceae:
True False

17. The correct spelling of this cactus genus is:
a. Hageocereus c. Haagiocereus b. Hagiocereus d. Haageocereus

18. The 'Ocotilla' bush (Fouquiera splendens) is not a cactus:
True False

19. The correct spelling of this cactus genus is:
a. Echinofossulocactus c. Echinaefossulocactus b. Echinafossulocactus d. Echineofossulocactus

20. Which is a columnar cactus?
a. Carnegiea gigantea c. Lemaireocereus thurberi b. Pachycereus pringlei d. All of the above

Answers to & QUIZ TIME #3
1. a. Pleiospilos.
2. False. As a general rule you cannot graft a cactus to a succulent stock, or visa versa.
3. c. Notocactus.
4. d. silvestri.
5. c. Lophophora williamsii.
6. a. fuzzy worms.
7. a. hatiora salicornioides.
8. c. Astrophytum myriostigma.
9. d. Scott Haselton (1895-1991) from 1929 thru 1965. Charlie Glass (1934-1998) followed as editor from 1966 thru 1992. W Taylor Marshall was a cactus explorer & author, & CSSA President 1938-41. Harry Johnson, Sr, was an explorer & nurseryman, & famous for his Paramount (Echinopsis) hybrids.
10. b. N L Britton & J N Rose.
11. True.
12. c. Lophophora williamsii.
13. c. genus, species, variety.
14. c. Branch at ground level.
15. False. It belongs in the sub-family Opuntioideae.
16. True.
17. d. Haageocereus.
18. True.
19. a. Echinofossulocactus.
20. d. All of the above.

        20      First Rate
        18-19   Top-notch
        16-17   Worth-while
        14-15   Run-of-the-mill
        13 or less  Need-more-study

QUIZ TIME #4 Chuck Staples, 1999 Mid-Iowa C&SS

1. Which cactus species has feather-like spines?
a. Obregonia denegrii c. Mammillaria plumosa b. Sclerocactus polyancistrus d. Thelocactus bicolor

2. "Pencil Tree" commonly refers to this succulent:
a. Senecio deflersii c. Hoodia parviflora b. Euphorbia tirucalli d. Aeonium arboreum 'Zwartkop'

3. The small, barbed, readily detachable spines characteristic of Opuntia cactus are called:
a. glaucous c. panicles b. follicles d. glochids

4. Abnormal growth on cactus or succulents:
a. monstrous c. cristate b. fasciated d. all of the above

5. The organ of a cactus from which arise wool, spines, leaf (when present), lateral branches & flowers:
a. axil c. corolla b. areole d. cell

6. A HERBARIUM is the building in which a collection of preserved plants is housed:
True False

7. What is the milk-like liquid that exudes from the cut surface of Euphorbia succulents?
a. latex c. chlorophyll b. nectar d. chloroplast

8. The various c&s clubs in England are called 'Affiliates' of the national British Cactus & Succulent Society:
True False

9. The various c&s clubs in America are called 'Affiliates' of the national Cactus & Succulent Society of America:
True False

10. Newsletter of the CSSA is called:
a. To The Point c. Cactus Corner News b. Stuck-up News d. Cactus Chatter

11. Current 1999 president of the British C&SS is:
a. G E Cheetham c. Gordon Rowley b. Bill Maddams d. David Hunt

12. Who is the author of "Cacti of the Southwest" (1963 & revised 1980)?
a. Gordon Rowley c. H Hubert Earle b. Brian M Lamb d. Danny Schuster

13. Astrophytum asterias cacti can be found in northern Mexico and this USA State:
a. Texas c. Arizona b. New Mexico d. California

14. Which Ariocarpus cactus species might be considered the rarer plant?
a. scapharostrus c. retusus b. kotschoubeyanus d. trigonus

15. The correct spelling of this succulent genus is:
a. Mesembrianthemum c. Mesembryanthemum b. Mesembryanthimum d. Messembrianthemum

16. Natural habitat of the Lithops genus succulent is found mostly in:
a. Southern India c. Namibia & South Africa b. Saudi Arabia d. Madagascar

17. The head of a Lithops plant consists of a pair of leaves:
True False

18. This is a stem succulent:
a. Senecio articulatus c. Agave americana b. Crassula arborescens d. Peperomia columella

19. Kedrostis africana succulent is a member of the:
a. Purslane Family c. Spurge Family b. Milkweed Family d. Cucumber Family

20. This is a caudiciform succulent:
a. Pachycormus discolor c. Kedrostis africana b. Pachypodium succulentum d. All of the above

Answers to QUIZ TIME #4
1. c. Mammillaria plumosa.
2. b. Euphorbia tirucalli.
3. d. glochids.
4. d. All of the above.
5. b. areole.
6. True.
7. a. latex.
8. False. They are called 'Branches'.
9. True.
10. a. To The Point.
11. c. Gordon Rowley.
12. c. H Hubert Earle (1906-1984).
13. a. Texas. I have seen this species in habitat on a ranch near Rio Grande
City in Texas.
14. a. scapharostrus.
15. c. Mesembryanthemum.
16. c. Namibia & South Africa.
17. True.
18. a. Senecio articulatus. The others are leaf succulents.
19. d. Cucumber Family.
20. d. All of the above.

        20      First Rate
        18-19   Top-notch
        16-17   Worth-while
        14-15   Run-of-the-mill
        13 or less  Need-more-study


St. Nicholas Visits the Greenhouse
by Eva Allen

Twas the night before Christmas. The whole greenhouse through,
All the cacti were resting, most succulents, too.
Not one stocking was hung by the heater with care,
For plants don't wear stockings, as you're well aware!
But there, near the doorway, pots plastic and clay
Were waiting for gifts St. Nick might bring that way.
The plants nestled down, dry and cool on their shelves,
While they dreamed of sweet plant food and cactophile elves.
And soon the place filled with a wonderful glow,
As each plant dreamed it'd someday win Best of the Show!
Then, out on the lawn, there arose quite a roar,
And an old Aloe cried, "It's that man we adore!
Hope he won't try to land on the glass roof again--
When he did it last year, he came crashing right in!"
Not a plant dared aspire, but they needn't have worried,
The sleigh came to rest on the grass, all unhurried.
And into the greenhouse, St. Nicholas came,
Laughing and calling each plant by its name!
"Greetings, Agaves, Euphorbias, too,
Astrophytums and Gymnos--it's good to see you!
And my Cereus buddies! Just how have you been?
Don't you hide from me, Lithops!" he said with a grin.
"I see you Opuntias still have all your spines!
My Haworthia friends! You are looking so fine!
How's it going, you Crassulas and Mammillarias,
You Pachys, Parodias, and lovely Gasterias!"
St. Nick made his way through the greenhouse and back
To the door where he'd set down his big, bulging pack.
Then he turned his attention to filling the pots--
Of the plants' favorite food, he had brought lots and lots!
There was lava rock, perlite, and pumice in bags,
Tweezers, insecticide, pretty name tags,
Compound for rooting, and tools to make grafts,
And caulking to keep out the cold winter drafts!
All the plants received things they would very soon need
To start growing and blooming and making new seed.
"We're eternally grateful," the old Aloe said.
"My pleasure!" St. Nick replied, nodding his head.
"I wish we had succulents at the North Pole,
But you're not quite that hardy, I know, bless my soul!
I will see you next year, now you all take good care,
And win a nice prize at the show or the fair!"
Then, turning, he made his way back to the sleigh,
Called out to his reindeer, and soon flew away.
And they heard him exclaim as he faded from view,
"Happy Holidays and Happy Growing to you!"


Global Growing

The passion for growing cacti and succulents captivates people from all over the world. Meet Vesna, a fine grower from Yugoslavia. Vesna is a TV producer in Belgrade where she lives with her husband, son and a large collection of C&S.

Vesna in Belgrade, Yugoslavia

I needed 10 years (long time, isn't it) to make sure that rules exist to be broken.

My plants never got as much water as this year and they never been more beautiful and flowerful like they are now. So, 1-2 weeks between watering is not enough from my experience. I live in Belgrade, Yugoslavia with continental climate (four seasons), nothing extreme: cold continental winter (- 5degC to +10degC [23degF to 50degF]), 2 months hot summer (25degC - 35degC [77degF - 95degF]) and adequate between. I grew my plants outdoors, on open balcony, they were outside until they could not resist cold (by RULES, of course). I moved them indoors when temperatures fell below 2degC-0degC (37degF - 32degF), depending on species of course.

Two months ago I covered balcony with glass, it is not greenhouse by definition (rules, rules, rules), but I hope it is very close, it would be heated through the room door. I grow "everything": astrophytums, lophophoras, mammilarias, notos, rebutias, ferocactus, echinocactus, echinocereus, parodias, gymnos, espostoas, oreocereus, echeverias, euphorbias, crassulas, ceropegias... almost 200 species.

I don't have sedums except morganianum and maybe one or two not important species. My sedum m. is in very porous soil, not in direct sun but on light place, and I water him very often which mean at least 2 times a week at 30degC (86degF). He really grows fast, but this spring I must cut it because he shriveled during winter. But it is not the first time, no matter, I put it indoors on the same place every winter. Reason must be watering, but I can't be sure - more or less watering. I'm not worried because it grows really fast. I have one with thick (oval) leafs, and one with longer, thinner leafs. Magdalena* gave me almost 40 plants, most succulents (echeverias), she has beautiful succulent collection. I repot "her" echeverias together in oval plastic pot, five species, they are very pretty together. She also gave me few astrophytums that she germinated. I put them together also. Then I asked my son to bring me some crashed brick from tennis field, my sister brings me pumice, and everybody must do something! I still have problem with lime, must crash rocks that I find around railroad. Don't laugh, we must do everything because there are no nurseries or ready cactus soil, so it is very hard to be a cacti lover here.

Vesna Milosavljevic

*Those who subscribe to cacti_etc will recognize Magdalena's name. She is a very knowledgeable grower who also lives in Serbia

Global Growing will be a regular feature inspired by the knowledge and the camaraderie of cactus and succulent growers worldwide. The Internet has made it easy to see that while we may have differences when we share a common interest we become closer as friends and neighbors.