In This Issue:

Quiz Time 5 - 8, by Chuck Staples, from the Mid Iowa Cactus & Succulent Society Newsle tter

The Correct Way of Judging Succulent Plants for Awards, By David Naylor, from The Cactus Factus (Ontario)

The Saguaro, Carnegiea gigantea, the state flower of Arizona, by Carol Clapp


Quiz Time #5
By Chuck Staples
From the Mid-Iowa C&SS

1. This genus is a cactus:
a. Welwitschia b. Trichocaulon c. Schlumbergera d. None of the above

2. This genus is the other succulent:
a. Cheiridopsis b. Toumeya c. Neoporteria d. None of the above

3. Frequently a large perennial succulent, with an often-massive inflorescence, the rosette from which it arises dies:
a. Aloe b. Gasteria c. Haworthia d. Agave

4. Common name for the genus Pseudococcus:
a. Aphids b. Mealy Bugs c. Scale d. Peyote

5. Who is editor of the Canadian publication, The Amateurs Digest?
a. Chuck Staples b. Marina Welham c. Mac Clarke d. G E Cheetham

6. Who is current editor of the CSSA Newsletter, To The Point?
a. Mac Clark b. Jerry Barad c. Myron Kimnach d. Marina Welham

7. Astroloba is a genus of this family:
a. Mesembryanthemaceae b. Crassulaceae c. Liliaceae d. Peireskioideae

8. Aylostera is a genus of this family:
a. Peireskioideae b. Cactaceae c. Agavaceae d. Portulacaceae

9. Aztekium ritteri was the only species of this cactus genus until this new species was discovered in 1991 and published (described) in 1992:
a. mexicana b. militaris c. laui d. hintonii

10. This new genus and species was discovered by the same person and at the same time as the new species in #9 above was discovered:
a. Discocactus horstii b. Disocactus nelsonii c. Geohintonia mexicana d. Uebelmannia pectinifera

11. This cactus is sometimes referred to as the Agave Cactus:
a. Mammillaria longimamma b. Leuchtenbergia principis c. Echinocereus triglochidiatus d. Coryphantha macromeris

12. The cactus genus Copiapoa grows in habitat in:
a. Argentina b. Peru c. Bolivia d. Chile

13. The cactus genus Gymnocalycium grows in habitat in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay & Uruguay:
True False

14. This succulent Euphorbia species is a smooth dwarf globose dioecious species:
a. milii b. obesa c. woodii d. decaryi

15. This succulent Euphorbia species is one of the Medusa Head spurges:
a. milii b. obesa c. woodii d. decaryi

16. Ceropegia & Stapelia are succulent members of:
a. Purslane Family b. Milkweed Family c. Spurge Family d. Cucumber Family

17. Portulaca, Portulacaria, Lewisia & Anacampseros are succulent members of:
a. Purslane Family b. Milkweed Family c. Spurge Family d. Cucumber Family

18. These succulent genera are part of the Ice Plant Family:
a. Mesembryanthemum & Opophytum b. Conophytum & Lithops c. Delosperma & Glottiphyllum d. All of the above

19. Tiger Jaws or Pebbled Tiger Jaws refers to this succulent plant:
a. Fenestraria rhopalophylla b. Gasteria verrucosa c. Haworthia fasciata d. Faucaria tuberculosa

20. Panda Plant refers to this succulent:
a. Kalanchoe tomentosa b. Kalanchoe beharensis c. Graptopetalum paraguayense d. Graptopetalum occidentale

Answers to QUIZ TIME #5

1. c. Schlumbergera.
2. a. Cheiridopsis.
3. d. Agave.
4. b. Mealy Bugs
5. b. Marina Welham.
6. a. Mac Clark.
7. c Liliaceae.
8. b. Cactaceae.
9. d. hintonii. It was discoverd by & species named after George S Hinton.
10. c. geohintonia mexicana. Genus was named after GS Hinton.
11. b. Leuchtenbergia principis.
12. d. Chile.
13. True
14. b. obesa.
15. c. woodii.
16. b. Milkweed Family.
17. a. Purslane Family.
18. d. All of the above.
19. d. Faucaria tuberculosa.
20. a. Kalanchoe tomentosa.

    20           First Rate
    18-19        Top-notch
    16-17        Worth-while
    14-15        Run-of-the-mill
    13 or less   Need-more-study 

Quiz Time #6 By Chuck Staples From the Mid-Iowa C&SS

From the Mid-Iowa C&SS

1. Elephants Foot is a common name for this succulent plant:
a. Beaucarnea recurvata b. Dioscorea macrostachya c. Bowiea volubilis d. None of the above

2. Sea Onion or Climbing Onion refers to this succulent plant:
a. Beaucarnea recurvata b. Dioscorea macrostachya c. Bowiea volubilis d. None of the above

3. Pony Tail Palm refers to this succulent plant:
a. Beaucarnea recurvata b. Dioscorea macrostachya c. Bowiea volubilis d. None of the above

4. Obregonia denegrii is sometimes referred to as the Artichoke Cactus: True False

5. Feather Cactus refers to this Mammillaria species:
a. spinosissima b. hahniana c. geminispina d. plumosa

6. Old Lady Cactus refers to this Mammillaria species:
a. spinossisima b. hahniana c. geminispina d. plumosa

7. The correct spelling of this succulent genus is:
a. Glottiphyllum b. Glotiphyllum c. Glottiphylum d. Glottiphillum

8. The progeny of a cross between two species in the same genus:
a. Interspecific hybrid b. Intergeneric hybrid

9. This plantsman standardized the use of the two-word latinized name for species that we refer to as a binomial which is a generic name followed by a specific epithet:
a. Adrian Hardy Haworth (1768-1833) b. Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)

10. Idria columnaris might have this common name:
a. Telegraph pole b. Boojum Tree c. Upside down carrot d. All of the above

11. Idria columnaris has been changed to Fouquieria columnaris: True False

12. Idria columnaris is a cactus: True False

13. Idria columnaris is endemic to Baja California, Mexico: True False

14. Grandiflorus means:
a. with large leaves b. large-horned c. large-flowered d. large-spined

15. These succulent genera belong to the family Crassulaceae:
a. Graptopetalum & Greenovia b. Crassula & Kalanchoe c. Dudleya & Tacitus d. All of the above

16. Dolicothele is a subgenus of this cactus genus:
a. Lemaireocereus b. Mammillaria c. Copiapoa d. Neoporteria

17. Some experts classify Mediolobivia and Aylostera as subgenera of this cactus genus:
a. Rebutia b. Lobivia c. Sulcorebutia d. Acantholobivia

18. The genus Lobivia is an anagram of what country?
   ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

19. The cactus genus Frailea comes from a fairly wide area in South America and whose flowers are self fertile:
True False

20. The succulent genus Fenestraria comes from the Latin word fenestra which means:
a. Baby Toes b. Window c. Jaws d. Small

Answers to Quiz Time #6

1. b. Dioscorea macrostachya.
2. c. Bowiea volubilis.
3. a. Beaucarnea recurvata.
4. True
5. d. Mammillaria plumosa.
6. b. Mammillaria hahniana.
7. a. Glottiphyllum.
8. a. Interspecific hybrid.
9. b. Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778).
10. d. All of the above.
11. True
12. False It is a succulent not a cactus.
13. True
14. c. large-flowered.
15. d. All of the above.
16. b. Mammillaria.
17. a. Rebutia
18. Bolivia in South America
19. True
20. b. Window.

    20           First Rate
    18-19        Top-notch
    16-17        Worth-while
    14-15        Run-of-the-mill
    13 or less   Need-more-study


Quiz Time #7
By Chuck Staples
From the Mid-Iowa C&SS

1. Organ Pipe Cactus is a common name for this cactus plant:
a. Leuchtenbergia principis b. Lemaireocereus thurberi c. Backebergia militaris d. Cleistocactus strausii

2. Old Man Cactus or Old Man of Mexico is a common name for this cactus plant:
a. Backebergia militaris b. Cephalocereus palmeri c. Cephalocereus senilis d. Cleistocactus strausii

3. This generic cactus name honors the philanthropist Andrew Carnegie:
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

4. Which of these CSSA presidents was president of the CSSA prior to 1960?
a. Harry Johnson, Jr b. Ronald Monroe c. Myron Kimnach d. Virginia Martin

5. The first Mid-America Regional Conference site was held in:
a. Kansas City, MO b. Des Moines, IA c. St Louis, MO d. Omaha, NE

6. The 1999 CSSA Convention site was held in this USA city:
___ ___ ___    ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

7. This species of Gasteria is considered a dwarf succulent:
a. armstrongii b. beckeri c. nigricans d. verrucosa

8. Gasterias were initially classified by Carolus Linnaeus as Aloes in 1753 by including the first Gasteria under the name Aloe disticha. This Frenchman separated these plants by first describing a new genus name Gasteria in 1809:
a. Adrian Hardy Haworth (1768-1833) b. Henri Auguste Duval (1777-1814) c. James Boeie (1789-1869) d. Johan Drege (1794-1881)

9. Vegetative propagation of Gasterias are generally from off-sets, but can also come from leaf cuttings: True False

10. Gasterias are endemic to:
a. Mexico b. India c. South Africa d. Madagascar

11. The same Frenchman from #8 above also first named this succulent genus in 1809:
a. Haworthia b. Kalanchoe c. Dinteranthus d. Crassula

12. Baby Toes is a common name given to this succulent plant:
a. Lapidaria margaretae b. Fenestraria rhopalophylla c. Haworthia retusa d. Pleiospilos nelii

13. Sand Dollar Cactus is a common name given to this cactus plant:
a. Astrophytum myriostigma b. Astrophytum asterias c. Aztekium ritteri d. Rebutia muscula

14. The generic name Aporocactus is derived from the Greek, meaning imprenetrable cactus: True False

15. Aporocactus flagelliformis has this common name:
a. Queen of the Night b. Peanut Cactus c. Rat Tail Cactus d. Easter Cactus

16. The Big Bend National Park is located in this USA State:
a. California b. Arizona c. New Mexico d. Texas

17. The Big Bend National Park is located within the boundary of this desert:
a. Chihuahuan Desert b. Sonoran Desert c. Great Basin Desert d. Mojave Desert

18. This succulent genus is in the Crassulaceae family, has an appearance similar to the genus Sempervivum, and is native in the Asian countries from USSR to Japan:
a. Greenovia b. Dudleya c. Orostachys d. Aeonium

19. Some species of the genus from the answer in # 18 above can be winter-hardy in Iowa, with some protection from the winter wind:
True False

20. The succulent genus Dudleya can be found here: a. Guerrero to Chiapas, Mexico b. Baja California, Mexico, into California, USA c. Northern Chile into southern Peru d. Cuba & other nearby islands

Answers to Quiz Time #7

1. b. Lemaireocereus thurberi.
2. c. Cephalocereus senilis.
4. a. Harry Johnson, Jr (1951-53). {Myron Kimnach (1970-71); Virginia Martin (1977-79); Ronald Monroe (1982- 84)}.
5. d. Omaha, Nebraska (1986). {Des Moines 1988; St Louis 1990; Kansas City 1994)}.
7. a. armstrongii.
8. b. Henri Auguste Duval (1777-1814).
9. True
10. c. South Africa.
11. a. Haworthia.
12. b. Fenestraria rhopalophylla
13. b. Astrophytum asterias.
14. True. It is an epiphytic cactus with long slender pendant, spiny cylindrical stems, often bearing numerous aerial roots.
15. c. Rat Tail Cactus.
16. d. Texas.
17. a. Chihuahuan Desert.
18. c. Orostachys.
19. True. We have Orostachys spinosus that has wintered in our outdoor c&s bed in a protected spot over the last few years.
20. b. Baja California, Mexico, into California, USA.

20          First Rate
18-19       Top-notch
16-17       Worth-while
14-15       Run-of-the-mill
13 or less  Need-more-study 


Quiz Time #8
By Chuck Staples
From the Mid-Iowa C&SS

1. Organ Pipe National Monument is located in this USA State:
a. California b. Arizona c. New Mexico d. Texas

2. Probably the first cactus to evolve which is still in existence is:
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

3. Having two leaves when cactus seeds germinate is called:
a. dicotyledonous b. dichotomous c. sucker d. shoots

4. Genus in the Cactaceae family with the largest # of species (over 400) is:
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

5. Genus in #4 above is derived from the Latin word:
a. columna b. crista c. mamilla d. hybrida

6. A uniform characteristic of all species of the genus in 4 above is tubercles arranged in entersecting spirals:
True False

7. Soft-bodied, spherical small headed cactus; tap root; and felty areoles lacking spination:
a. Strombocactus b. Epithelantha c. Lophophora d. All of the above

8. The generic name Echinocactus comes from Greek word meaning:
a. hedgehog & wax candle b. crested & wax candle c. melon & prickly d. hedgehog & prickly

9. This succulent genus of the Crassulaceae family is indigenous to the Canary Islands, Madeira, parts of North Africa and the Cape Verde Islands:
a. Echeveria b. Aeonium c. Orostachys d. Dudleya

10. Agave stricta is a succulent that has long tapering wide leaves: True False

11. Aloe polyphylla is common and like all other succulent Aloe species: True False

12. This succulent species is native to Mexico, has an underground caudex with thick corky bark and branching from crown with many long grass-like leaves:
a. Bursera microphylla b. Bowiea volubilis c. Pachypodium geayi d. Calibanus hookeri

13. This genus has widest distribution of any genus within the family Cactaceae, from Canada in North America to near the tip of Argentina and chile in South America:
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

14. The largest desert state park in the USA, an area of some 600,000 acres within the Sonoran Desert range:
a. Anza Borrego DSP, Borrego Springs, California b. Carlsbad Living DSP, Carlsbad, New Mexico c. City of Rocks SP, Deming, New Mexico d. Picacho Peak SP, Picacho, Arizona

15. This cactus species is found near the lower western border of California into southern Nevada & northwestern Arizona:
a. Espostoa lanata b. Ariocarpus fissuratus c. Cylindropuntia ramosissima d. Rebutia minuscula

16. This succulent genus comes from the Cape Province of South Africa:
a. Ruschia b. Pleiospilos c. Piaranthus d. All of the above

17. Genus Mitrophyllum is in the family Mesembryanthemaceae and comes from the Cape Province of South Africa:
True False

18. This Englishman established (described) the genus name Lithops in 1922:
a. Gert Cornelius Nel (1885-1950) b. Nicholas Edward Brown (1849-1934) c. Hermann J H Jacobsen (1898-1978) d. Hindrik W de Boer (1885-1970)

19. Which succulent Agave species is prevalent in the Big Bend National Park?
a. americana b. stricta c. lechuguilla d. utahensis

20. Epithelantha micromeris var bokei (the Button Cactus) grows among broken limestone in the Big Bend area of Texas:
True False

Answers to Quiz Time #8

1. b. Arizona. On Arizona-Mexico border.
2. Pereskia.
3. a. dicotyledonous.
4. Mammillaria
5. c. mamilla a nipple shaped organ, called a tubercle on the Mammillaria.
6. True. Look at your Mammillaria plant. See the tubercles that crisscross each other in spirals around the plant.
7. c. Lophorphora.
8. d. hedgehog & prickly ~~ echinus = hedgehog & cactus = prickly. [a. hedgehog & wax candle refers to genus Echinocereus; b. crested & wax candle refers to genus Lophocereus; c. melon & prickly refers to genus Melocactus.]
9. b Aeonium.
10. False. Agave stricta has long tapering narrow leaves.
11. False. It is rare & unusual with stem forming a spirally ascending rosette.
12. d. calibanus hookeri.
13. Opuntia
14. a. Anza Borrego Desert State Park, Borrego Springs, California.
15. c. Cylindropuntia ramosissima.
16. d. All of the above.
17. True.
18. b. Nicholas Edward Brown (1849-1934). However, the first Lithops plant was discovered by William John Burchell in 1811 as a new species of Mesembryanthemum (M. turbiniforme) published by Adrian Hardy Haworth in
1821 using Burchell's drawing of the plant as the basis for his description.
19. c. lechuguilla.
20. True. This is one place it can be found.

     20         First Rate
    18-19       Top-notch
    16-17       Worth-while
    14-15       Run-of-the-mill
    13 or less  Need-more-study


From The Cactus Factus (Ontario)
The Correct Way of Judging Succulent Plants for Awards
By David Naylor

This question is a tough one and really needs an extensive discussion, but it comes from a member who is unable to get to our meetings, so I'll do my best . . .

Q. "I would like to know the correct way of judging succulent plants for awards. At a recent show (not in Ontario) I watched in awe as a raggedly-leafed Beaucarnea was awarded the first place ribbon with an explanation of "That is how it grows"."

A. It is difficult for me to comment on this specific case without seeing the plant and the other entries in that class. Judges should keep in mind the main reason for the show -- usually to encourage more people to grow these plants. This means that the ribbon winners should at least look the part -- a mangled old rarity shouldn't get a first place ribbon just because it's seldom seen. Plants in the wild may be misshapen, chewed by goats or have insect damage, but that doesn't mean that plants like that may get ribbons. Leaves may naturally dry up at the tips from the dry desert air, but we don't want this too evident on our show plants unless it makes them look nicer. Plants are judged to a level of perfection, and every defect that takes away from that perfection is counted against the plant. Damage to a plant, and usually this includes dried-up leaf tips, should be weighed during judging according to how far it is from the growing point. In other words, damage low down on a plant's body should not weigh so heavily against perfection as the same damage nearer the top. We wouldn't want a plant that had been grown perfectly for the last 30 years to lose a lot of points due to a bad scar at its base. Whereas a 30-year-old cactus with a spine cluster missing near the growing point (in other words -- recent damage) would not have a chance for a ribbon. Likewise with broken spines and leaves.

Let's consider another case, a jade (Crassula ovata) with a damaged leaf. The exhibitor needs to consider what looks best -- the plant with the damaged leaf in place, the plant with the whole leaf removed, or the plant with only the damaged portion of the leaf removed. The choice should be the one that will be the least noticeable -- to both the public and the judge. As plants may get damaged on the way to the show, an exhibitor should be prepared to make last minute pruning and/or clean-ups.

So in the specific case of the Beaucarnea (or Nolina as they are currently known). Leaves near the growing point should not have dried-up tips. Lower leaves do dry up with age and may be expected, but for show purposes I would like any dried portions to be removed by lightly pruning them. As a judge, I would notice that the plant had been pruned but this would be more preferable to me than seeing dried or damaged portions remaining on the plant. Another plant, identical in all respects but without dried-up leaves or leaf tips would rank higher in my judging. However, another judge, with a "That is how it grows" viewpoint, may decide to award the other way as the dried leaf tips could be viewed as being more true-to-type.

Don't construe the above to apply in all cases like this though. Judging is quite difficult and requires knowledge of the natural form of most species. General "rules" or guidelines like the above cannot be made. For example, a Haworthia lockwoodii needs to have the dried leaf tips in place. In this instance, removal of any dried leaf-tips would be severely down-pointed.

In general, most exhibitors fail to spend enough time cleaning up their plants for a show. So a judge often awards ribbons to plants which could have looked much nicer. If the plant referred to in the question only had partially dried-up bottom leaves this wouldn't have been enough of a "flaw" to withhold awarding the first place ribbon if it was the best plant in the class. But in my opinion (and remember that this is without seeing it) a well-grown and cleaned-up plant of equivalent maturity in the same class should have been able to beat it.


From the Tucson Desert Breeze
The Saguaro, Carnegiea gigantea, the state flower of Arizona
By Cactus Carol (Clapp)

The Saguaro, Carnegiea gigantea, the state flower of Arizona

[An article written by Cactus Carol (Clapp) for another publication recently but it may be of interest to our subscribing members who live far away and are not so familiar with this splendid cactus.]

A splendid plant, the saguaro grows only in southern Arizona and northern Mexico, plus a small area in California west of the Colorado River. In life, and in death, the saguaro serves to balance the environment of its habitat. It starts from a seed, probably dropped by a bird, underneath a palo verde or mesquite growing on a bajada the lower rocky slope of a mountain. These trees, or other desert shrubs, become `nurse' plants to growing seedlings. A `nurse' plant provides protection from the sun and creates an area of shade permitting any rain to nourish the young plant for longer than it would if in full sun.

Every year is not conducive to the survival of young saguaros maybe only one year in eight will be good. Take a look at any stand of these magnificent personable cacti. Each colony will consist of tall ones the same height, medium sized ones of about equal height, and maybe all the small ones will be about one foot tall, for example. A seed needs constant moisture to germinate if it dries out during this process, the seed will fail and no plant will arise. Any fruits remaining when the monsoon starts will be washed off by the heavy rains. If the rains are good, young saguaros will be born, only to continue their growth in the first year if the following winter rains are also productive. Subsequent monsoons and winter rains need to be good for the next few years in order to maintain the young plant's growth until it has grown enough to be able to store an adequate amount of water in its succulent tissues to keep it alive during a drought.

Young saguaros are globular and grow slowly at first at 5 years of age they may be only 1 inch tall bearing little resemblance to a mature specimen. Their rate of growth increases each year, assuming there has been rain in the winter and in the monsoon, up to the maximum of about 8 inches in height each year. When they attain the age of 65 to 75 years, they are likely to produce their first `arm'. An extreme frost can cause these `arms' to become twisted or droop, making the whole plant look like a human being waving or dancing. Their first flowers usually appear when the main stem reaches about 8 feet in height, although an occasional smaller specimen is sometimes seen in flower.

Once a cactus has flowered it is considered to be mature at about that time, although the plant does not produce fruits in its first year of flowering. Then the saguaro turns into an hotel for the birds of the Sonoran desert. A woodpecker pecks a nest for itself; the hole made then forms a callous. When the woodpecker has finished with the hole, the pygmy owls and elf owls take their turn at using the ready-made nest. Sometimes even a snake can be seen slithering up to the hole usually hoping for breakfast.

Normally saguaros flower in May and June, although some particular specimens are known to flower also in October each year, as well as in May. Each white flower lasts for only one day. During the night, bats and birds pollinate the blossoms. When the fruits are ripened, they split open exposing hundreds of black seeds in the bright red flesh inside. The Indians harvest the fruits by dislodging them with long poles made from the saguaro ribs.

Saguaro fruits are used by the Tohono O'odham Indians for making syrup, jams, jellies and drinks. They use the seeds as chicken feed. This is a protected plant so no part of the plant may be taken from state or privately owned lands by anyone unless they have permission to do so.

Lightning can kill saguaros. When struck, the flesh is burnt and the rain causes it to drop off the ribs, leaving the ribs exposed. The ribs can be used as building materials by those who have an appropriate license. Strong winds following heavy rains can topple large specimens when the ground is so wet it cannot hold the roots in place.

Rodents burrow around these fallen giants, making their nesting holes, which may later be used by snakes. Insects enjoy the decomposing flesh enabling their families to thrive, thereby providing ample food for the birds. The calloused ex-birds' nests within the stems are still intact as the once-proud sentinels of the desert lie on the ground in death. These `boots' are harvested and are much desired by designers for their works of art. The remaining flesh returns to the earth to nourish future generations of saguaros.

It is important always to treat saguaros with respect. The Tohono O'odhams regard them as their brothers, for the deceased saguaros, when fallen, continue to nourish future plants, just as the ashes of their family members may have nourished some saguaros.

Up to 1997, the champion saguaro stood by Vulture Mine near Wickenburg, Arizona, until it was struck by lightning. It was 54 feet tall with about 20 arms and was believed to be over 200 years old. Its trunk was almost 7 feet around. The current championship is shared by six saguaros in Arizona who come within five points of each other on the scales of size used by AMERICAN FORESTS in their National Register of Big Trees program.

To view saguaros in their habitat, visit the Saguaro National Park in Tucson.

The Park is in two sections, one east of Tucson in the Rincon Mountains, the other west of Tucson in the Tucson Mountains. The climax to their video film is superb. Think about combining a visit to the western section with a tour of the adjacent Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, where interpretive exhibits of saguaros may be viewed.

Further reading on saguaros

All About Saguaros, by Carle Hodge. Published by Arizona Highways about $9.

The Giant Cactus and its World, by Paul Griswold Howes. 1954 Out-of-print, but sometimes found in used book stores.

The Great Saguaro Book by Susan Hazen-Hammond. 1997 $16.95

The Ecology of the Saguaro, Part II of the National Park Service Scientific

Monograph Series, Number Eight, 1977, by Warren F. Steenbergh & Charles H. Lowe

Relevant addresses

Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (Tel: 520-883-2702) 2021 N Kinney Rd, Tucson AZ 85743 <http:/>

Saguaro National Park Headquarters (Tel: 520-733-5100) 3693 S Old Spanish Trl, Tucson AZ 85730-5601 <http:/> East District Visitor Center Tel: 520-733-5153 West District Visitor Center Tel: 520-733-5158

Friends of Saguaro National Park PO Box 18998, Tucson AZ 85731-9998 <http:/>

This is an entirely volunteer group which raises money for this Park's projects with the aim of ensuring the survival of saguaros and their environment. Members also do much of the physical work involved in some of the maintenance projects.