In This Issue:

Poor Growth and That "Winter Problem",
By Dan Mahr - Published in The Henry Shaw Cactus Digest, St. Louis, Missouri USA

About Growing Cactus & Succulents from Seed,
By Lou Kilbert, Ph.D., Michigan Cactus & Succulent Society

Please Don't Drink The Water
By Roy Paramore - Published in Kaktos Komments, Houston Cactus and Succulent Society

Prickly Pear Juice and Prickly Pear Muffins
By Sue Haffner - Published in Cactus Corner News - Fresno, CA

Quiz Time #9 - 12,
Chuck Staples, 1999, Mid-Iowa C&SS

******************************************************************************

Poor Growth and That "Winter Problem"
By Dan Mahr - Published in The Henry Shaw Cactus Digest, St. Louis, Missouri USA

I've found that 99% of the time that a plant is not growing or showing poor growth, the problem lies below ground. Check your roots and soil. If the roots are weak and/or the soil structure is bad, it's time to repot. In these cases I tried to readjust my soil mixture toward the better-draining end of the spectrum.

Another common problem is root health vs. soil mass. If the roots are healthy and actively growing, the plant will usually do well in a larger soil volume, again, as long as soil is well draining and the plant is not overwatered. Under these circumstances, growth can be very rapid. But if the root mass is small or the roots are not healthy and actively growing, the container size should be small. Remember, a healthy root system, on an actively growing plant, is the best way of getting all that moisture pumped out of the soil. If there is a lot of soil and not many healthy roots, the plant is in trouble.

We are now getting nighttime temperatures down into the mid 40's here in southern Wisconsin and most of my Burseras are still outside and in full leaf, but I've slowed down the watering. This weekend is the time for me to completely clean out the greenhouse, repot, prune, throw out the dead and (terminally) sick. And then start moving the outdoor plants into their winter quarters. Realizing that the greenhouse was over-full last winter, and I've acquired an additional 75 plants this year. Just how much do glass and aluminum stretch?

*************************************************

About Growing Cactus & Succulents from Seed
By Lou Kilbert, Ph.D., Michigan Cactus & Succulent Society, (Louisxxx@wwnet.net)

The first question is Why do it? There are several answers, but the two most important are: 1) some of us have a strong need to nurture our fellow creatures. To us, there is a special joy that comes from taking a tiny seed and caring for the resulting plant for several years through to adulthood.

The first flowering of the plant you raised can give you an unbelievable high! About 30 years ago, I grew a packet of mixed Gasteria seed. I still have the one that I fell in love with, a Gasteria disticha var. tuberculata. It is soft reddish-green in color with white spots; the form is what intrigues. The leaves are distischous (lie one on top of the other in single file) and about halfway up, they bend back (reflex) in a most graceful way, like a ballet movement. The end of the leaf again curves up slightly.

2) Nature has created a marvelously diverse world for us to live in. Uniformity of type is an aberration of the human imagination (or lack thereof!) I'll give two examples: Sedum tatarinowii grew readily from seed and flowered in the fall of the same year. The plant produces " leaves shaped like a little hand and colored blue with a powdery blue coating. It does well in shade or full sun with adequate water and good drainage. It produces a very large cluster of pale, whitish-pink, star-shaped flowers. Of the 20-25 seeds that I planted, about a dozen made it to maturity. Most of you know of my fondness for variegated plants. One of these seedlings is variegated yellow on the edges, not spectacular, but special to me and cannot be purchased from anyone! Another seedling has deep, rose pink (almost red) flowers. Thus from about 20 seed, I now have two plants unobtainable in any other way.

The second case in point is set of Haworthia emelyae var. uniondalensis (appears to be close to H. Bayeri) that I grew from seed. It was a small packet, and I had no idea what to expect: they had been labelled H. uniondalensis which meant nothing to me at the time. Of the 10 seeds planted in November of 1995, I have 4 nice sized plants (1 3/4"; adults get to be 3" in diameter). The leaves of these plants are matt, dark, deep forest green with flat, transparent, bullate windows (bullate = covered with what appear to be tiny bubbles) at the ends. I am sure that if I could read Chinese calligraphy, the characters that nature draws on the faces of each leaf would read "hope, prosperity, longevity, etc." However, in particular, one seedling is variegated with bright, creamy white that is pink at this time of year. The beauty of this seedling is beyond cost if you could find another like it.

The second question is What to grow? Beginners might want to start with fast growers that come from large seed. Euphorbia seeds are very large and easy to handle; they grow fast in the summer months.

Aloe seeds are large to very large; easy to handle, and the plants grow fast. Agaves are easy from seed, but slow to grow. Mesembs are hard to handle because the seed is very fine and the seedlings start out tiny, but they grow fast, and, depending on the species, produce a good sized plant in a short time (there are even annual mesembs!) Of the cacti, Opuntias have large, easy to handle seed and grow quickly, but the seed may take two to three years or more to germinate. Some people nick the seed with a knife or sand the edge a little to try to break the seed's dormancy. Notocactus and Gymnocalyciums have good-sized seed and grow quickly. I've had them flower in two or three years. Rebutias have smaller seed but have flowered for me after only one year of growth. Lobivias are easy but may take five years to flower. Astrophytums have good sized seed and you get some interesting variation between the seedlings. These are just suggestions, I'm sure that I've forgotten some that would be equally good for beginners.

A third question is When to grow? Almost any time of year is OK for the experienced grower. The beginner should stick with spring sowing. Even if a mature plant has a dormancy period, once the seedling is growing, keep it growing for a minimum of one or preferrably two years. I keep learning. Those H. uniondalensis seed should have been planted in early summer. Plants that only grow in winter may not germinate until the following late fall or winter if you plant their seed in the spring. Summer growing plants seem to be less fussy about the time of year.

Many people grow their succulents and cactus under lights for 16 hours a day the first year to try to keep them going a full twelve months. Some plants with a strict winter dormancy may go to sleep in the fall no matter what you try to do! That why it's important to start early in spring. If you plant too late, the little seedling will not have had enough time to put away enough stuff for the long dormancy period. Patience is the key to the plant world, but its never too late. Why don't you start now trying to grow some of your favorites from seed?

**********************************************

Please Don't Drink The Water
By Roy Paramore - Published in Kaktos Komments, Houston Cactus and Succulent Society

The three species of Ferocactus, usually called "barrel cactus," that occur in the Southwest are best known for having an interior so juicy that they can provide a dying human with a life-saving drink of water. Both Indian and non-Indian have told and retold this myth many times. This is NOT true and is actually dangerous.

Chemical analysis of the liquid from Ferocactus indicates that it is too alkaline to aid a human and that a person would be worse off after drinking the liquid. Add to this the water lost through perspiration as a dehydrated person struggles to open the cactus and the story begins to crumble.

The Seri Indians of the Sonoran Desert were aware that eating the pulp of the barrel cactus did not provide life giving moisture. They knew that the juice of Ferocactus covillei caused headaches and the juice from Ferocactus wislizenii caused extreme diarrhea and pain to the body.

Although the barrel cacti did not provide water, they did provide food. All products of the plant's reproductive cycle were consumed and, for this reason, the harvest lasted several months. Women collected the buds in early spring, the flowers in late spring and the fruits in early summer. These parts were parboiled to remove bitterness then eaten or dried in the sun for storage. The cooked fruit tastes like artichoke and the flowers taste like brussels sprouts.

Sometimes a slice of the cactus, with the spines removed, was roasted, wrapped in cloth and applied to sore places for the relief of pain.

Reference:
Indian Uses of Desert Plants, James Cornett (Curator of Natural Science, Palm Springs Desert Museum)

****************************************************

Prickly Pear Juice and Prickly Pear Muffins
By Sue Haffner - Published in Cactus Corner News - Fresno, CA

Prickly Pear Juice: There are various methods of obtaining prickly pear juice, and all should be done wearing gloves. Experts from the Desert Botanical Garden in Phoenix suggest placing the unpeeled, washed fruit in a kettle with about a half-inch of water. Simmer until soft, then press out the juice with a potato masher. Strain the juice through cheesecloth or a fine sieve to remove all the spines.

The University of Arizona Cooperative Extension suggests simply slicing the washed raw fruit and pureeing it in a blender. Then strain the juice through cheesecloth and allow to settle.

Prickly Pear Muffins
1 egg
1/4 cup oil
1 cup prickly pear juice
1 3/4 cup self-rising flour
1/3 cup sugar
1 cup diced prickly pear fruit, optional
1/2 cup chopped walnuts, optional

Mix together egg, oil and prickly pear juice. Stir flour and sugar together. Add liquid ingredients and stir just to moisten batter. Fold in prickly pear fruit and nuts. Fill greased or lined tins 2/3 full with batter. Bake at 425degF for 20 minutes. Makes 1 dozen. - Desert Botanical Garden.

*************************************************

Quiz Time #9
By Chuck Staples, 1999
From the Mid-Iowa C&SS

1. What temperate zone of plant hardiness is Des Moines, Iowa?
a. Zone 4, -30deg to -20deg b. Zone 5, -20deg to -10deg c. Zone 6, -10deg to 0deg d. Zone 7, 0deg to 10deg

2. What's the name of the garden located in San Marino, Calif?
a. Tegelberg Cactus Garden b. Univ of Calif Bot Garden c. Huntington Bot Garden d. Desert Botanical Garden

3. Where is the Chihuahuan Desert Research Institute located?
a. San Diego, CA b. Las Vegas, NV c. Tucson, AZ d. Alpine, TX

4. "Boxing Glove Cholla" is a common name for this Cylindropuntia cactus species:
a. whipplei b. Imbricata c leptocaulis d. fulgida var mammillata forma monstrosa

5. "Desert Christmas Cactus" is a common name for this cactus plant:
a. Zygocactus truncatus b. Cylindropuntia leptocaulis c. Selenicereus grandiflorus d. Rhipsalidopsis rosea

6. This genus is an epiphytic cactus:
a. Rhipsalis b. Heliocereus c. Disocactus d. All of the above

7. Disocacti are native to Honduras & Guatemala in Central America: True False

8. This generic name is derived from Greek & Latin, meaning 'mountain cereus', and this cactus species is commonly referred to as the "Old Man of the Andes":
a. Oreocereus celsianus var trollii b. Cephalocereus senilis c. Lophocereus schottii d. All of the above

9. The head of a plant usually differentiated in some way from the normal vegetative structure, in cacti usually bristly, and from which flowers arise:
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

10. This genus has a pseudocephalium (a false cephalium) produced on the side of the cactus plant:
a. Melocactus b. Backebergia c. Buiningia d. All of the above

11. "Cobweb Houseleek" is a common name for this succulent plant:
a. Senecio scaposus b. Sempervivum arachnoideum c. Sedum dasyphyllum d. All of the above

12. "Burro's Tail" is a common name for this succulent plant:
a. Sedum dasyphyllum b. Sedum multiceps c. Sedum bellum d. Sedum morganianum

13. One of the more remarkable discoveries of succulent plants of recent decades was made by Peter R O Bally (1895-1980) in the dry areas of eastern Somalia, whose stems resemble those of certain Trichocaulon species of South Africa:
a. Tacitus bellus b. Sarcocaulon burmannii c. Pseudolithos cubiforme d. Welwitschia mirabilis

14. Examples of convergences and of plant symmetry between cacti & succulents are Astrophytum asterias and Gibbaeum heathii:
True False

15. Desmond T Cole (1922-still living) studied, researched and collected Lithops for over 35 years and authored a book on Lithops in 1988:
True False

16. One of the most sought-after Lithops cultivars with a redish color is this succulent:
a. L. aucampiae cv. Betty's Beryl b. L. salicola cv. Malachite c. L. optica cv. Rubra d. All of the above

17. "Panda Plant" is a common name for this succulent Kalanchoe species:
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

18. "Bird's Nest" is a common name for this Mammillaria cactus species:
a. M. guelzowians b. M. elongata c. M. carmenae d. M. camptotricha

19. There is a cactus Parodia species named after Alfred B
___ ___ ___

20. The succulent genus Sansevieria is in the Liliaceae family:
True False

Answers to Quiz Time #9

1. b. Zone 5, -20deg to -10deg. However, northern Iowa reaches into Zone 4.
2. c. Huntington Botanical Gardens. The Tegelberg collection is now at the Huntington (after the death of Gil Tegelberg, Jr, a few years ago). The Univ of Calif Bot Garden is located in Berkeley, CA. The Desert Bot Garden is in Phoenix, AZ.
3. d. Alpine, TX.
4. d. Cylindropuntia fulgida var mammillata forma monstrosa. ("var" or "v" means variety when used with botanical names.)
5. b. Cylindropuntia leptocaulis.
6. d. All of the above.
7. True. Don't confuse Disocactus with Discocactus. Disocactus is an epiphytic cactus. Discocactus is a globular cactus that features a recessed cephalium, native to Brazil, Paraguay & Bolivia in South America.
8. a. Oreocereus celsianus var trollii.
9. cephalium
10. c. Buiningia.
11. b. Sempervivum arachnoideum. Sempervivums are commonly referred to as "Hen & Chicks".
12. d. Sedum morganianum.
13. c. Pseudolithos cubiforme.
14. False. Astrophytum asterias & Euphorbia obesa would be the obvious choice.
15. True. Desmond cole is one of the current authorities on Lithops, and is retired and lives in South Africa.
16. c. Lithops optica cv. rubra. ("cv." = cultivar)
17. tomentosa.
18. d. Mammillaria camptotricha.
19. LAU.
20. False. Sansevierias belong in the Agavaceae family.

CORRECT ANSWERS QUIZ RESULTS
     20        First Rate
    18-19      Top-notch
    16-17      Worth-while
    14-15      Run-of-the-mill
  13 or less   Need-more-study

*************************************************

Quiz Time #10
Chuck Staples, 1999
Mid-Iowa C&SS

1. "Teddy Bear Cholla" is a common name for this Cylindropuntia cactus:
a. C. kleiniae b. C. bigelovii c. C. acanthocarpa d. C. fulgida

2. The "Teddy Bear Cholla" can be found in:
a. Arizona b. SE California c. Northern Mexico d. All of the above

3. "Teddy Bear Cholla" is sometimes referred to as the "Jumpin' Cholla":
True False

4. "Beavertail Cactus" is a common name for this Opuntia cactus:
a. O. fragilis b. O. polyacantha c. O. basilaris d. O. violacea

5. The cactus Neobesseya has had trouble keeping it genus name. Some authors up- (down-?) grade it into:
a. Mammillaria b. Coryphantha c. Both of the above d. Neither of the above

6. The Neobesseya genus has a fairly wide distribution; from northern Mexico to the central & northwestern USA:
True False

7. The Neobesseya genus was named after Dr C E Bessey (1845-1915) of the University of Nebraska & described (and named after him) in literature in

1923 by:
a. Lyman Benson b. N L Britton & J N Rose c. F M Welwitsch d. Adrian H Haworth

8. According to the Englishman Brian M Lamb, the species of the genus Neobesseya is:
a. asperispina - from northern Mexico b. missouriensis - from central & sw USA c. similis - from eastern Texas d. all of the above

9. Greenonium is an intergeneric hybrid between:
a. Greenovia & Aeonium b. Greenovia & Adenium c. Greenovia & Geranium d. Greenovia & Pelargonium

10. Pachyveria is an intergeneric hybrid between:
a. Pachypodium & Sansevieria b. Pachycereus & Echeveria c. Pachyphytum & Echeveria d. Pachycormus & Gasteria

11. Graptoveria is an intergeneric hybrid between:
a. Graptopetalum & Sansevieria b. Graptopetalum & Echeveria c. Graptopetalum & Gasteria d. None of the above

12. The state in Mexico just across the border from El Paso, Texas, is Sonora:
True False

13. Cephalocereus senilis (the "Old Man Cactus") comes from the state of Hidalgo, Mexico:
True False

14. The succulent genus Yucca belongs to this family:
a. Liliaceae b. Agavaceae c. Portulacaceae d. Crassulaceae

15. The "Joshua Tree" is a common name for this Yucca species:
a. Y. whipplei b. Y. rigida c. Y. brevifolia d. Y. schottii

16. The succulent genus Welwitschia is a plant considered totally unique and contains just the one monotypic species:
True False

17. The discovery of Welwitschia by Dr. Friedrich Martin Joseph Welwitsch (1806-1872) in 1859 started out with the species name 'bainesii', but was changed in 1975 to this species:
a. mirabilis b. fruticosa c. afra d. foliosa

18. The fruit of this genus is a three-part capsule, each containing one seed, which is ejected with great force upon ripening:
a. Sansevieria b. Kalanchoe c. Euphorbia d. Mammillaria

19. Succulent Echeverias (like cacti) are indigenous to the american continent with over 100 species:
True False

20. Echeveria 'Perle von Nurnberg' is an interspecific hybrid between:
a. Echeveria agavoides & Dinteranthus polevansii b. Echeveria gibbiflora var metallica & Echeveria potosina c. Sedum Pachyphyllum & Echeveria lauii d. Aeonium tabulaefore & Echeveria elegans

Answers to Quiz Time #10

1. b. Cylindropuntia bigelovii.
2. d. All of the above.
3. True.
4. c. Opuntia basilaris. Most of the familiar O. basilaris are shaped like a beaver tail, with lots of glochids & no long spines that you see in many other Opuntias. Coloration ranges from dark greenish to purplish. Some appear to be winter hardy and have made it over the last couple of winters at the Des Moines Botanical Center 'Thomas M. Schwink' outdoor c&s garden.
5. c. Both of the above. I personally like the genus name Neobesseya.
6. True - according to English author, Brian M Lamb, in his 'A Guide to Cacti of the World' 1991.
7. b. N L Britton & J N Rose.
8. d. All of the above. I'm only familiar with N. missouriensis & it is very winter-hardy here in Iowa.
9. a. greenovia & Aeonium.
10. c. Pachyphytum & Echeveria.
11. b. Graptopetalum & Echeveria.
12. False. The Mexican state just south of El Paso in Chihuahua. The state of Sonora, Mexico, is just south of the USA state of Arizona.
13. True. This state is just northeast of Mexico City.
14. b. Agavaceae. At one time it was put in the Liliaceae family.
15. c. Yucca brevifolia. The Joshua Tree National Monument is in the southeastern part of California.
16. True.
17. a. mirabilis - renamed by Sir Joseph D Hooker, an Englishman.
18. c. Euphorbia.
19. True. Most are found in Mexico in Central America.
20. b. Echeveria gibbiflora var metallica & Echeveria potosina. If you got this one, you understand the difference between 'intergeneric' and 'interspecific'. The other answers would be 'intergeneric' hybrids & I just made them up.

CORRECT ANSWERS QUIZ RESULTS
      20       First Rate
     18-19     Top-notch
     16-17     Worth-while
     14-15     Run-of-the-mill
   13 or less  Need-more-study

*************************************************

Quiz Time #11
Chuck Staples, 1999
Mid-Iowa C&SS

1. The habitat of this succulent is in Africa:
a. Agave b. Dudleya c. Aloe d. Echeveria

2. This succulent species forms clumps of rosettes:
a. Rosularia chrysantha (from Turkey) b. Greenovia aurea (from Canary Islands) c. Graptopetalum filiferum (from Mexico) d. All of the above

3. Tacitus bellus, a succulent discovered in northern Mexico in 1972 by Alfred B Lau and closely related to genus Graptopetalum has now been placed in this genus as Graptopetalum bellum by the Englishman David R Hunt:
True False

4. The name as a part of which an epithet was originally and validly published:
a. basionym b. synonym c. pseudonym d. homonym

5. In taxonomy, one or more names for a taxon by which it has been known but which are incorrect according to the Rules of Nomenclature:
a. basionym b. synonym c. pseudonym d. homonym

6. Belus, bella, or bellum in Latin means beautiful:
True False

7. "Star Cactus" is a common name for this Astrophytum species:
a. A. capricorne b. A. asterias c. A. myriostigma d. A. ornatum

8. "Partridge Breast Aloe" is a common name for this Aloe species:
a. A. variegata b. A. haworthioides c. A. polyphylla d. A. vera

9. Aloe polyphylla is endemic to this country:
a. Madagascar b. Lesotho c. Socotra d. South Africa

10. The latinized family names always end in '-ae' (pronounced ee), or in '-aceae' (pronounced ay-say-ee), which means "belonging to":
True False

11. The correct spelling of this succulent genus is:
a. Ophytum b. Oophytum c. Ophitum d. Oophitum

12. A plant's botanical name is composed of two parts:
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ & ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

13. This Euphorbia succulent species was named after a cactus genus:
a. E. rathbunioides b. E. neolloydioides c. E. opuntioides d. E. matucanioides

14. Euphorbia caput-medusae grows in robust fashion on the slopes of Lion's Head above Table Bay in the Cape Province region of South Africa, and this "Head of the Medusa" succulent species was named by:
a. Carolus Linnaeus, 1753 b. Carl Peter Thunberg, 1771 c. Anders Sparrman, 1771 d. Paul Hermann, 1672

15. A synonym of Euphorbia milii is Euphorbia spendens:
True False

16. "Crown of Thorns" is a common name for this succulent plant:
a. Euphorbia grandicornis b. Cotyledon paniculata c. Chorisia speciosa d. Euphorbia milii

17. Globose means shaped like a globe; spherical or nearly so; round in all cross sections:
True False

18. This Euphorbia is a solitary, globose species (at least as a young plant):
a. E. obesa b. E. meloformis c. E. valida d. All of the above

19. This is a much sought after (rarer) Euphorbia:
a. E. tirucalli b. E. trigona c. E. piscidermis d. E. mamillaris

20. This succulent is considered by many as a caudiciform Euphorbia:
a. E. squarrose b. E. knuthii c. E. inermis d. All of the above

Answers to Quiz Time #11

1. c. Aloe. The other 3 are mostly found in mainland Mexico and in Baja California (Mexico), reaching up into soutwestern USA.
2. All of the above.
3. True. Originally described by Dr Reid V Moran & Dr Jorge Meyran as Tacitus bellus.
4. a. basionym. See example of this in #3 above. Epithet means a single word or phrase; in taxonomy, that part of the name of a species (the specific epithet) which qualifies the genus name to form a binomial; it also appears in the name of categories below that of species (subspecific epithet, varietal epithet).
5. b. synonym. A name applied to a genus or species already validly named, or one improperly used so that it must be discarded.
6. True.
7. d. Astrophytum ornatum.
8. a. Aloe variegata - from the Cape Province of South Africa.
9. b. Lesotho - a country within the boundries of South Africa.
10. True.
11. b. Oophytum.
12. Genus & species. This is the binomial system of plant nomenclature devised by Carolus Linnaeus in the 18th century, when he classified and named the whole known plant and animal kingdoms; thus creating an orderly system out of chaos.
13. c. Euphorbia opuntioides - a low shrubby dwarf which looks like a miniature prickly-pear, flattened, 2-angled branches. The other 3 were made up by me.
14. a. Carolus Linnaeus, 1753. All 4 were botanists; however, although Linnaeus never visited the Cape region, his 2 students, thunberg & Sparrman, did. These 3 were from Sweden.
15. True.
16. d. Euphorbia milii.
17. True.
18. All of the above.
19. c. Euphorbia piscidermis.
20. All of the above.

CORRECT ANSWERS QUIZ RESULTS
      20       First Rate
     18-19     Top-notch
     16-17     Worth-while
     14-15     Run-of-the-mill
   13 or less  Need-more-study

*************************************************

Quiz Time #12
Chuck Staples, 1999
Mid-Iowa C&SS

1. The correct spelling of this cactus genus is:
a. Nyctocereus b. Nictocereus c. Nicteocereus d. Nycteocereus

2. The Namib Desert stretches along the Atlantic Ocean (west coast) of the African nation of Namibia:
True False

3. This succulent genus is endemic to the Namib Desert and is restricted to an approximately 100 kilometre-wide (62 miles) coastal strip:
a. Aloe b. Welwitschia c. Haworthia d. Glottiphyllum

4. It has been determined that the plant in #3 above can live up to about 75 years:
True False

5. The area in #3 above gets its moisture primarily from:
a. rainfall over 5" and less than 10" per year b. rainfall of over 10" per year c. Atlantic Ocean coastal fog d. none of the above

6. This succulent apecies grows in a narrow strip at an altitude of about 164 feet in sand-covered fissures of gneiss-rocks within 18 miles of the soutwestern coast of Namibia, Africa, where the rainfall is less than 5" per year:
a. Yucca brevifolia b. Pachycormus discolor c. Lewisia cotyledon d. Lithops optica

7. The "Elephant's Foot" caudex plant, succulent genus name Dioscorea, can be found in what is referred to as the old world and the new world:
True False

8. Caudices develop rarely wholly above ground in nature, more often below ground; occasionally half and half:
True False

9. The surface of caudices is rarely smooth, but more often:
a. pleated or blistered b. covered in polygonal warts c. tubercled or spiny d. any of the above

10. Most caudex plants put out branches that are:
a. thin & more or less non-succulent b. weak, climbing, twining or prostrate c. deciduous d. all of the above

11. Deciduous is generally used with reference to leaves which fall in the same season (once a year):
True False

12. The pachycaul (thick stem) Adansonia was named by Carolus Linnaeus in 1753 to commemorate the Frenchman Michel Adanson, a pioneer investigator of tropical West Africa:
True False

13. Adansonia digitata is called the "Baobab" or "Monkey Bread Tree", and could be the largest of all succulents:
True False

14. The smallest of the Pachypodium caudices is broader than tall and is:
a. P. namaquanum b. P. lealii c. P. brevicaule d. P. densiflorum

15. Cactus genus Mammillaria occurs primarily in nature in:
a. Mexico only b. South America only b. SW USA only d. Mexico & SW USA

16. The sap in Mammillaria plants is:
a. watery only b. milky only c. watery or milky d. none of the above

17. Like in the succulent genus Euphorbia the sap in some Mammillaria plants can be poisonous:
True False

18. This Englishman established (described) the genus Mammillaria in 1812:
a. Adrian Hardy Haworth (1768-1833) b. Henri Auguste Duval (1777-1814) c. James Bowie (1789-1869) d. Johan drege (1794-1881)

19. The first comprehensive book written on the subject of the genus Mammillaria was The Mammillaria Handbook published in 1945 by this author:
a. Edgar Lamb b. Edgar & Brian Lamb c. Lyman Benson d. Robert T Craig

20. John Pilbeam updated the above author's comprehensive book on Mammillaria in his own book, Mammillaria, A Collector's Guide in 1981:
True False

Answers to Quiz Time #12

1. a. Nyctocereus.
2. True. Namibia is just north of and borders the nation of South Africa.
3. b. Welwitschia. The other 3 have a wider distribution over other parts of Africa.
4. False. The oldest Welwitschia mirabilis plant found is estimated to be from 1,500 to 2,000 years old.
5. c. Atlantic coastal fog.
6. d. Lithops optica - other 3 are found in Central & North America.
7. True. Dioscorea elephantipes species grows in the eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Dioscorea macrostachya species grows in the state of Vera Cruz, Mexico.
8. True. However, most of us keep the caudex above ground so we can see that portion of the plant. Most times the caudex is the most interesting part of the plant; what tends to justify our reasoning that it is a succulent type plant.
9. d. any of the above
10. d. all of the above
11. True.
12. True.
13. True.
14. c. Pachypodium brevicaule.
15. d. Mexico & Southwest USA
16. c. Watery or milky
17. False. True in some Euphorbias but not true in Mammillarias.
18. a. Adrian Hardy Haworth (1768-1833).
19. d. Robert T Craig (1902-1986) from USA. Lyman Benson (1909-1993) was also from USA & the author of The Cacti of the United States & Canada 1982. Edgar Lamb (1905-1980) wrote a number of books in the 1940s & 1950s - from England. He & son Brian Lamb (1935-now living in Gibralter, Spain) wrote a number of books together in the 1960s & 1970s, including the popular Pocket Encyclopedia of Cacti 1969 & Colorful Cacti of the American Deserts 1974.
20. True. This book includes newer described species with the help of David Hunt's work on this genus. Pilbeam was born in 1931 & Hunt in 1938 & both from England.

CORRECT ANSWERS QUIZ RESULTS
      20       First Rate
     18-19     Top-notch
     16-17     Worth-while
     14-15     Run-of-the-mill
   13 or less  Need-more-study